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Collezione Giuseppe Iannaccone

A New Figurative Art 1920-1945 Works from the Giuseppe Iannaccone Collection Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art London 26.09 - 23.12.2018

1920

History

  Treaty of Rapallo, marking the end of D’Annunzio’s occupation of Fiume.

Art

  Paul Cézanne is granted a personal room at the Venice Biennial. 

History

 Economic depression and occupation of factories by workers in Turin. Increase in episodes of violence by Fascist squads. 

Literature

 Founding in Florence of Rete Mediterranea, a quarterly journal edited by Ardengo Soffici and published by Vallecchi, which folds after just a year.

Literature

 Enzo Ferrieri founds Il Convegno, a journal of art and literature, in Milan. 

Literature

 The first issue of the art journal Dedalo, editor Ugo Ojetti.

Art

Ottone Rosai presents 29 paintings, 16 drawings and 48 notes in Florence at his first solo show.

Art

Filippo De Pisis moves from Ferrara to Rome and holds his first solo show at the Casa d’Arte Bragaglia.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, Il signor Luigi B., Milan, 1920 (autobiographical novel).

1921

History

Socialist Congress in Livorno and founding of the Italian Communist Party.

History

Birth of the National Fascist Party.

History

Victory of the nationalist bloc in the general election. 

Literature

 Roberto Melli joins the editorial staff of the Rome-based industrial magazine Energia.

Art

 Gabriele D’Annunzio, Notturno, Tip. Treves, Milan, 1921.

Art

 Gino Severini, Du cubisme au classicisme, J. Povolozky & Co, Paris, 1921.

1922

History

  Intensification of armed clashes in the streets and Fascist attempts to take over “red” towns. The headquarters of the Socialist party newspaper Avanti! devastated and set on fire. 

History

  March on Rome organized by Mussolini to take power by force. Victor Emanuel III asks Mussolini to form a new government.

History

 Founding in Milan of the newspaper L’Ambrosiano.

Literature

 Carlo Levi begins to write for the journal La rivoluzione Liberale, editor Piero Gobetti.

Art

 Anselmo Bucci, Leonardo Dudreville, Achille Funi, Emilio Malerba, Pietro Marussig, Ubaldo Oppi and Mario Sironi combine to form a group of seven 20th-century painters in Milan and an exhibition bearing its name, Sette pittori del Novecento, as its title is organized by Margherita Sarfatti at the Galleria Pesaro.

Art

 Felice Carena and the sculptor Attilio Selva open an art school in Piazza degli Orti Sallustiani, Rome. The pupils include Fausto Pirandello (as from 1922) and Giuseppe Capogrossi (as from 1923).

Art

 Show of work by Ottone Rosai at the Casa d’Arte Bragaglia in Rome and the Saletta Gonnelli in Florence.

Art

 Ill and overburdened with debt, Ottone Rosai’s father drowns himself in the Arno and the artist is obliged to take over his carpenter’s shop in Via Maggio, Florence, and reduce his artistic activities for a number of years. 

Art

 Inauguration in Florence of La Fiorentina Primaverile. Prima esposizione nazionale dell'opera e del lavoro d'arte nel Palazzo del Parco di San Gallo a Firenze.

1923

History

 Mussolini delivers the speech inaugurating the Novecento group exhibition at the Galleria Pesaro.

Art

 Carlo Levi makes his debut at the Turin Quadrennial in a room organized by Felice Casorati, a key figure in his development first encountered during the year. Another participant is Gigi Chessa, now resident in Rome.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, La città delle 100 meraviglie, Casa d’Arte Bragaglia, Rome, 1923 (with a watercolour by the author on the cover).

1924

History

Victory of the national list in a general election marked by violence. The Socialist politician Giacomo Matteotti is murdered after accusing the Fascists in parliament of rigging the election and calling for the results to be declared null and void. 

History

 Members of the opposition led by Giovanni Amendola abandon parliament and withdraw to the Aventine. 

Art

 Mario Mafai and Scipione begin to attend classes in drawing together in Rome at the Scuola libera del nudo, where Mafai and Antonietta Raphaël meet the following year.

Art

 Solo show of work by Filippo De Pisis organized in November by the magazine La Fiamma in the foyer of the Teatro Nazionale in Rome. 

Art

 Ottone Rosai joins the movement L’Italia Liberista but is expelled for dissidence.

Art

 A room at the XIV Venice Biennial is devoted to six painters of the Novecento group, while the seventh, Oppi, is given a personal room. The Sei di Torino (Six Painters of Turin) also take part with Jessie Boswell, one of the Six,  showing work in the Italian section as a foreign artist. 

Art

 Gigi Chessa takes part in the Esposizione di venti artisti italiani at the Galleria Pesaro in Milan.

1925

History

 The restrictive enforcement of decrees introduced during the previous two years puts an end to the freedom of the press and the freedom of assembly and association. 

History

 Publication in the major periodicals of the Manifesto degli intellettuali Fascisti, drawn up by by Giovanni Gentile, in response to which, Antonio Gramsci writes the Manifesto degli intellettuali Antifascisti, which is published in Il Mondo.

Literature

 Ottone Rosai meets Mino Maccari and begins to contribute to the journal Il Selvaggio (1926–29).

Literature

 Publication in Milan of the first issue of the weekly magazine La Fiera Letteraria, which then moves its headquarters to Rome in 1928 under the direction of Giovanni Battista Angioletti and Curzio Malaparte, and becomes L’Italia Letteraria in 1929. Its contributors include Mario Mafai and Scipione, who produces the first cover of the renamed periodical in 1929 (the drawing of which, entitled Flagellazione / The Flagellation, now belongs to the Iannaccone Collection).

Art

 Filippo De Pisis moves to Paris, where he remains until 1939. He teaches at the Sorbonne and holds a solo show at the Carmine gallery.

Art

 Mario Mafai and Scipione show two small paintings at the third Rome Biennial in a room set up by Cipriano Efisio Oppo for works rejected by the official jury. 

Art

 Gigi Chessa designs the costumes and scenery for a production of Rossini’s opera L’Italiana in Algeri at the Teatro di Torino (Turin).

1926

History

 Mussolini introduces the death penalty.

Literature

 Publication of Lionello Venturi’s book Il gusto dei Primitivi, born out of a series of lectures delivered in Turin and Milan, with a drawing by Nicola Galante as its frontispiece. Venturi is in contact during this period with Carlo Levi, whose work is still bound up with the Novecento group and its support for the return to order.

Literature

 Publication of the first issue of the magazine L’Arte Fascista in Palermo. 

Literature

 Birth in Rome of 900. Cahiers d’Italie et d’Europe, a quarterly journal of literature published in French, edited by Massimo Bontempelli with Ottone Rosai among the contributors.

Art

 Benito Mussolini inaugurates the exhibition Novecento Italiano at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan. Filippo de Pisis and Francesco Menzio agree to take part but Gigi Chessa declines the invitation.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis and Francesco Menzio are among the artists featured in the Italian room at the XV Venice Biennial.

Art

 Lionello Venturi, Il gusto dei primitivi, Zanichelli, Bologna, 1926.

1927

Literature

 By invitation of Mino Maccari, Nicola Galante begins to contribute to Il Selvaggio, where Ottone Rosai also works.

Art

 Antonietta Raphaël and Mario Mafai move into an apartment on Via Cavour in Rome. Their first child, Miriam, is born the same year. 

Art

 Official debut of Mario Mafai in the show Mostra di studi e bozzetti organized by the Associazione Artistica Nazionale di via Margutta in Rome.

Art

 Renato Birolli moves from Verona to Milan, where he joins the editorial staff of L’Ambrosiano and comes into contact with the artistic and intellectual scene, whose leading figures include Carlo Carrà, Edoardo Persico, Giacomo Manzù and Aligi Sassu.

Art

 Edoardo Persico, founder of the Milanese gallery Il Milione, moves to Turin, where he remains until 1929. 

Art

 Scipione holds a show at the Casa d’Arte Anton Giulio Bragaglia.

Art

 Gigi Chessa, Felice Casorati, Nicola Galante, Carlo Levi, Francesco Menzio, Enrico Paulucci, Emilio Sobrero and Giacomo Debenedetti sign a letter of protest against the purchase of Giacomo Gandi’s painting La preghiera (The Prayer) by the Museo Civico d’Arte in Turin.

Art

 Umberto Lilloni and Virgilio Ghiringhelli are joint winners of the Principe Umberto Prize at the Brera Biennial.

Art

 Roberto Longhi, Piero della Francesca, Valori Plastici, Rome, 1927.

1928

Art

 Mario Mafai takes part in the XCIV Esposizione di Belle Arti della Società amatori e cultori.

Art

 Fausto Pirandello moves to Paris, where he comes into contact with the painting of Chaïm Soutine, André Derain and the Italiens de Paris (1928–33), a group including Giorgio De Chirico, Gino Severini, Massimo Campigli, Alberto Giacometti and Alberto Savinio.

Art

 A stay in Paris (1928–29) plays a part, together with Venturi’s theories, in Carlo Levi’s move away from the Novecento group.

Art

 Gigi Chessa is appointed to teach scenography at the Scuola Superiore di Architettura in Turin.

Art

 Henri Matisse is granted a personal room at the XVI Venice Biennial. Gigi Chessa, Ottone Rosai and Umberto Lilloni are among those taking part. Chessa is responsible for the installation design of the exhibition Mostra dell'Arte del Teatro, presented in the catalogue by Margherita Sarfatti. 

Art

 Aligi Sassu meets Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and draws closer to the Futurist movement without fully embracing its theoretical principles. He takes part in the Venice Biennial the same year at the age of just 16 and is co-author with Bruno Munari of the manifesto Dinamismo e riforma muscolare. 

Art

 Paolo Menzio takes part in the Salon de l’Escalier in Paris.

Art

 Georges Waldemar, Filippo De Pisis, éd. Chroniques du jour, Paris, 1928. 

Art

 Roger Vailland, ‘Le fils de Pirandello est peintre à Montparnasse’, Paris-Midi, 8 October 1928.

1929

History

 Signing of the Lateran Pacts and reconciliation between the Italian state and the Catholic Church after the long conflict that began with the struggle for national unification and independence. 

Literature

 Birth in Florence of the magazine Frontespizio with Ottone Rosai among the contributors and Piero Bargellini subsequently appointed as editor.

Art

 Inauguration of the Accademia d’Italia with Enrico Fermi, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and Guglielmo Marconi among its members. 

Art

 Group show of work by Roman artists including Mario Mafai, Antonietta Raphaël and Scipione at the Casa d’Arte Anton Giulio Bragaglia. Raphaël also takes part in Otto pittrici e scultrici romane at the Camerata degli Artisti and receives praise from the critics

Art

 Mario Mafai, Antonietta Raphaël and Scipione take part in the Prima Mostra del Sindacato laziale fascista at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome. Roberto Longhi coins the name “School of Via Cavour” in the second of two articles on the exhibition in L’Italia Letteraria.

Art

 Mario Mafai and Scipione take part in the show Giovani pittori romani at the Circolo di Roma in Palazzo Doria. 

Art

 Gigi Chessa, Carlo Levi and Francesco Menzio take part in the Prima Esposizione sindacale fascista in Turin.

Art

 Carlo Levi starts to produce work of a more markedly expressive character with Modigliani and the Matisse of the 1920s as his models. 

Art

 First show of the Sei di Torino (Six Painters of Turin: Jessie Boswell, Gigi Chessa, Nicola Galante, Corrado Levi, Francesco Menzio and Enrico Paulucci) at the Casa d’Arte Guglielmi with a poster by Menzio based on Manet’s Olympia.

Art

 Show of work by the Sei di Torino at Pier Maria Bardi’s gallery on Via Brera, which acts as a showcase until 1934 for the new generations seeking to revolutionize painting, including the Roman School (Cagli, Capogrossi, Cavalli) the Chiaristi, the Quattro di Palermo and the abstract painters of Milan. 

Art

 Ottone Rosai and Filippo De Pisis take part in the second Novecento Italiano exhibition at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan.

Art

 Edoardo Persico and Bruno Cassinari move to Milan.

Art

 Solo show of work by Fausto Pirandello − including La lettera (The Letter), now in the Iannaccone Collection − at the Galerie Vildrac in Paris. Giorgio De Chirico, Alberto Savinio, Fausto Pirandello and Carlo Carrà take part in Art Italien Moderne, organized by Mario Tozzi, at the Galerie Bonaparte.

Art

 Umberto Lilloni holds his first solo show at the Galleria Bardi in Milan.

Art

 Aligi Sassu begins the Uomini rossi (Red Men) series (1929–33), comprising some 500 depictions of gamblers playing dice, musicians, the Argonauts, riders and Castor and Pollux. 

Art

 Renato Guttuso frequents the local artists of Bagheria, friends of his father, and begins to paint landscapes, He shows work for the first time in the II Mostra del Sindacato siciliano.

Art

 C. Pav. (C. Pavolini), ‘Mostre romane. Antonietta Raphaël’, Il Tevere, anno VI, no. 142, 14 June 1929.

Art

 Alberto Moravia, Gli indifferenti, Alpes, Milan, 1929.

1930

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Via Toscanella, Vallecchi, Florence, 1930.

Literature

 The magazine Belvedere, widely read by the Milanese artists, publishes two works by Scipione: Il risveglio della bionda sirena (The Awakening of the Blonde Mermaid)

Art

 Show of work by Scipione and Mario Mafai organized at the Galleria di Roma by Pier Maria Bardi and Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

Art

 Antonietta Raphaël and Mario Mafai move to Paris, where she takes up sculpture

Art

 Second show of the Six Painters of Turin. Jessie Boswell leaves the group.

Art

 By invitation of Edoardo Persico, Umberto Lilloni takes part in a group show at the Galleria Il Milione, where Ottone Rosai holds a solo show the same year. 

Art

 Formation of a group of young artists around Edoardo Persico in Milan comprising Renato Birolli, Aligi Sassu, Giacomo Manzù, Luigi Broggini, Fiorenzo Tomea, Lucio Fontana and Domenico Cantatore.

Art

 Prima mostra di pittori italiani residenti a Parigi. Campigli, de Chirico, De Pisis, Paresce, Savinio, Tozzi at the Galleria Milano.

Art

 One of the last exhibitions of the Novecento Italiano group, including work by Gigi Chessa and Filippo de Pisis, is held in Buenos Aires.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis and Fausto Pirandello are among the artists taking part in the Ausstellung Moderner Italiener in Basel. 

Art

 Scipione takes part in the Prima Mostra Nazionale dell’Animale nell’Arte at the zoological gardens in Rome.

Art

 Renato Birolli, Gigi Chessa, Carlo Levi and Francesco Menzio take part in the XVII Venice Biennial. 

Art

 Mario Mafai, ‘Arte nuova a Parigi: “I Surin-dépendants”’, L’Italia Letteraria, 3 August 1930.

Art

 Mario Mafai, ‘Pittura parigina’, L’Italia Letteraria, 19 October 1930.

1931

History

Start of the draining and reclamation of the Pontine Marshes.

Literature

 First issue in Rome of Fronte, a magazine of art and literature with Marino Mazzacurati as editor and Giuseppe Ungaretti, Alberto Savinio, Scipione, Mario Mafai, Carlo Carrà, Arturo Martini and Alberto Moravia among the contributors. 

Art

 Fausto Pirandello’s first solo show is held at Pier Maria Bardi’s Galleria di Roma. 

Art

 Solo show of work by Francesco De Rocchi at the Galleria del Milione. 

Art

 The Six Painters of Turin break up.

Art

 Renato Guttuso, Scipione, Mario Mafai, Alberto Ziveri, Filippo de Pisis, Carlo Levi and Francesco Menzio take part in the first Rome Quadrennial.

Art

 Jessie Boswell holds a solo show at the Sala d’arte Guglielmi in Turin. 

Art

 Giuseppe Migneco moves to Milan and enrols in the faculty of medicine. Through contact with Beniamino Joppolo (a former schoolmate) and his new friends Aligi Sassu, Renato Birolli and Raffaele De Grada, he decides to stop studying and devote his energies to painting. 

Art

 Carlo Levi joins the anti-fascist Giustizia e Libertà movement led by Carlo Rosselli from his exile in Paris. His political activities lead to arrests in 1934 and 1935.

Art

 Antonio Banfi becomes and lecturer on philosophy at Milan University and develops an aesthetic of art as expression of the feeling and dramas of existence that is later to influence the artists of the Corrente group.

Art

 Lionello Venturi loses his chair in art history at Turin University through his refusal to swear an oath of loyalty to the Fascist regime and goes into political exile in Paris.

Art

 Luigi Broggini wins the prize for sculpture in a competition held by the Milan City Council for students of the Accademia di Belle Arti - Fondazione artistica Antonio Tantardini.

Art

 Scipione produces the cover for a new edition of Eugenio Montale’s Ossi di Seppia (1st ed. 1925) published by Giuseppe Carabba.

Art

 Touring exhibition of the Novecento Italiano group in Stockholm, Helsinki and Oslo (the following year), curator Margherita Sarfatti. The participants include Mario Mafai.

Art

 Scipione and Francesco Menzio take part in the Exhibition of Contemporary Italian Paintings at the Baltimore Museum of Art.

Art

 Edoardo Persico, ‘Filippo De Pisis’, La Casa Bella, April 1931.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, ‘La pagina dell'artista, confessioni’, L’Arte, May 1931.

Art

|it||it! S. Solmi, Filippo de Pisis, Hoepli, Milano 1931.  |en||it! S. Solmi, Filippo de Pisis, Hoepli, Milano 1931.   Sergio Solmi, Filippo De Pisis, Hoepli, Milan, 1931.

Art

 Sandro Volta, Ottone Rosai, Hoepli, Milan, 1931.

1932

Art

 The Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista is held at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the March on Rome. 

Art

 New and prolonged stay of Carlo Levi in Paris, during which he comes into contact with the Montparnasse group of Jewish artists. His painting attains full maturity in the expressionistic style that will characterize all the rest of his career.

Art

 The Galleria Il Milione holds a show of work by six Sicilian painters (6 pittori siciliani) including Renato Guttuso, who is soon closely involved with the Roman School.

Art

 Ten young artists from Rome (including Cagli and Pirandello) and Lombardy (like Birolli and Sassu) are featured in Dieci pittori at the Galleria di Roma. The owner Pier Maria Bardi, who moved from Milan to Rome in 1930, plays an important role as a link between the two art scenes.

Art

 Mario Mafai returns definitively to Rome while Raphaël is in London. Mafai shows work in the XVIII Venice Biennial. 

Art

 Ottone Rosai shows over a hundred drawings and paintings at the Galleria di Palazzo Ferroni in Florence.

Art

 Luigi Broggini makes a trip to Rome and comes into contact with the School of Via Cavour. He and Roberto Melli take part in the III Mostra d'arte del Sindacato regionale fascista Belle Arti di Lombardia (Biennale di Brera) at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan.

Art

 Scipione and Filippo de Pisis take part in 22 Artistes Italiens Modernes at the Galerie Georges Bernheim in Paris.

Art

 Cesare Brandi, ‘Il pittore Filippo De Pisis’, Dedalo, May 1932.

1933

Literature

 Publication of the first issues of Quadrante, mensile di arte, lettere e vita, edited by Massimo Bontempelli and Pier Maria Bardi, and of Quadrivio, Grande settimanale letterario illustrato di Roma.

Literature

 Gigi Chessa produces the cover for an Italian edition of Kafka’s The Trial, published by Frassinelli in its Biblioteca Europea series.

Art

 Antonietta Raphaël returns to Rome after stays in Paris and in London, where she had gone to resume contact with old artistic acquaintances.

Art

 Solo show of Ottone Rosai at the Galleria delle Tre Arti in Milan, organized by Edoardo Persico with an inaugural presentation by Alberto Savinio and a closing address by Persico. Rosai moves to a new studio at number 49 Via San Leonardo in Florence.

Art

 Luigi Broggini, Renato Birolli and Aligi Sassu take part in the IV Mostra d'arte del Sindacato regionale fascista delle Belle Arti di Lombardia at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan. Edoardo Persico organizes a show of work by Broggini at the Galleria delle Tre Arti in Milan.

Art

 Fausto Pirandello holds a solo show at the Galleria Milano in Milan.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis makes his first trip to London, followed by others in 1935 and 1938.

Art

 The 5th Milan Triennial takes place. Mario Sironi decorates the Palazzo dell’Arte with frescoes and Corrado Cagli presents the large fresco Preludi alla guerra (Prelude to War). Mario Mafai takes part in the Mostra dell’Abitazione. 

Art

 Scipione dies at the age of 29 in the San Pancrazio sanatorium at Arco Trento.

Art

 Roberto Melli, Giuseppe Capogrossi and Emanuele Cavalli are the signatories of the manifesto Del Primordialismo Plastico.

Art

 Alberto Ziveri holds his first solo show at the Galleria Sabatello in Rome.

1934

History

The first meeting between Hitler and Mussolini takes place in Venice.

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Mario Mafai, Filippo de Pisis, Fausto Pirandello and Francesco De Rocchi take part in the XIX Venice Biennial.

Art

 The dialogue between Renato Guttuso (in Milan in 1934 and 1935) and the Roman School continues with a show at the Galleria Il Milione including work by Corrado Cagli and Mario Mafai as well as the Sicilian Gruppo dei Quattro (Group of Four).

Art

 Aligi Sassu spends three months in Paris in contact with Filippo de Pisis, Alberto Magnelli, Massimo Campigli and Fernand Léger.

Art

 Luigi Broggini takes part in the V Mostra del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista delle Belle Arti di Lombardia at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan.

Art

 Bruno Cassinari and Italo Valenti are admitted to the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera.

Art

 Mario Mafai shows work at the Wertheim Gallery in London and decides not to take part in the IV Mostra del Sindacato fascista Belle Arti del Lazio due to the absence of many leading Roman artists.

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Dentro la guerra, Quaderni di Novissima, Rome, 1934.

1935

History

Start of the African campaign and the imposition of sanctions on Italy.

History

 Italian troops cross the Ethiopian border and the League of Nations votes to impose sanctions on Italy for an attack on one of its member countries. Victor Emanuel III assumes the title of emperor of Ethiopia the following year.

Art

 Fausto Pirandello takes part in the editions of the International Exhibition of Paintings held at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh from 1935 to 1939.

Art

 Fausto Pirandello, Mario Mafai and Ottone Rosai are among the artists taking part in the Exhibition of Contemporary Italian Painting at the Museum of Honour in San Francisco (followed by other venues in the United States).

Art

 Carlo Levi is interned in the town of Aliano in the province of Matera. This experience, which ends the following year, is followed by the introduction of a vein of realism with marked humanistic overtones into his painting. 

Art

 Wedding of Antonietta Raphaël and Mario Mafai. 

Art

 Ottone Rosai takes part in an exhibition of contemporary Italian art in Warsaw and produces two mural panels for the new railway station in Florence.

Art

 The second Rome Quadrennial, held at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, marks the triumph of the Roman School. The exhibition is normally limited to living artists but an exception is made to hold a retrospective of work by Scipione. Personal rooms are assigned to Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello and Corrado Cagli. The other participants include Ottone Rosai, Lugi Broggini, Roberto Melli, Alberto Ziveri, Filippo De Pisis, Francesco De Rocchi and Renato Guttuso (in Rome for the occasion). Francesco Menzio is a member of the selection panel.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis holds a solo show at the Zwemmer gallery in London.

Art

 Opening of the Galleria della Cometa, directed by Libero De Libero, in Rome.

Art

 Luigi Broggini takes part in the VI Mostra del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista di Belle Arti di Lombardia at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan and the Mostra di bianco e nero at the Galleria Il Milione.

Art

 Death of Gigi Chessa.

Art

 Italo Valenti’s passport is confiscated by the Fascist authorities on his return from a trip to Brussels and Paris, and not returned until 1946

Art

 Filippo de Pisis, Francesco De Rocchi, Carlo Levi, Francesco Menzio and Fausto Pirandello take part in L’Art Italien des XIXe et XXe siècles at the Jeu de Paume in Paris. 

Art

 Beniamino Joppolo, ‘Renato Birolli’, Corriere padano, 22 June 1935.

Art

 Carlo Belli, Kn, Edizioni del Milione, Milan, 1935.

1936

History

 Mussolini supports Franco by sending Fascist volunteers to fight on his side in the Spanish Civil War.

History

 Signing of the agreement between Italy and Germany known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.

Art

 Ottone Rosai holds a solo show and delivers a lecture at the Lyceum in Florence that is subsequently published under the title Difesa in the magazine Frontespizio.

Art

 The artists participating in the Mostra di pittura moderna italiana at Villa Olmo in Como include Francesco Del Bon, Filippo de Pisis and Ottone Rosai (with L'intagliatore).

Art

 Mario Mafai, Roberto Melli and Fausto Pirandello take part in the VII Mostra del Sindacato fascista del Lazio.

Art

 The participants in the XX Venice Biennial include Ottone Rosai, Francesco De Rocchi, Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Francesco Menzio and Fausto Pirandello, whose father Luigi Pirandello dies after visiting the event. 

Art

 Works related to Carlo Levi’s internment in the region of Lucania are featured in his show at the Galleria Il Milione and in the one held the following year at the Galleria della Cometa.

Art

 Renato Birolli and Aligi Sassu take part in the VII Sindacale interprovinciale lombarda at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan, which displays a more expressionist character and looks forward to the Corrente movement.

Art

 The Principe Umberto prize is awarded jointly to Manzù and to Francesco De Rocchi for his painting La popolana lombarda. De Rocchi opens a studio in Milan the following year and lives there on a permanent basis as from 1940 in contact with Gio Ponti, Alfonso Gatto and Sergio Solmi.

Art

 Death of Edoardo Persico.

Art

 Renato Birolli makes his first trip to Paris, where he meets Lionello Venturi. During his military service in Milan, he meets Beniamino Joppolo and Renato Guttuso, who has a studio in the city.

Art

 Mario Mafai starts work on the reading room of the Casa del Balilla (Fascist Youth centre) in the Trastevere district of Rome, designed by the architect Luigi Moretti. Alberto Ziveri, Renato Marino Mazzacurati and Antonietta Raphaël are also involved in the decorations, which are completed in 1937.

Art

 Aligi Sassu is arrested and serves an 18-month sentence for political conspiracy.

Art

 Luigi Broggini takes part in the VII Mostra del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista Belle Arti di Lombardia at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan.

Art

 The Galleria della Cometa holds solo shows of work by Roberto Melli (presented by Libero De Libero) and Alberto Ziveri (with an introduction in the catalogue by Roberto Melli).

Art

 Carlo Carrà, ‘La VII Mostra Sindacale Lombarda alla Permanente’, L’Ambrosiano, anno XIV, no. 40, 15 February 1936.

Art

 Lamberto Vitali, Vincent Van Gogh, Hoepli, Milan, 1936. 

1937

History

 Hitler receives Mussolini in Berlin’s Olympic Stadium.

History

 Introduction of the racial laws in Italy. 

History

 Planning begins for the Expo scheduled to be held in Rome in 1942. Mussolini inaugurates the Cinecittà film studio complex.

Art

 Show of work by Ottone Rosai and his pupils (Rosai Ottone e i suoi Allievi) at the Galleria Genova, then directed by Stefano Cairola (who subsequently shows works by the Corrente group). Francesco De Rocchi also holds a show there.

Art

 The series of events leading up to the Corrente group’s opposition to the Fascist regime includes the arrests of Aligi Sassu (sentenced to ten years but pardoned in 1938), Luigi Grosso, Renato Birolli (who spends six weeks in prison), Italo Valenti, Beniamino Joppolo and Giuseppe Migneco, who are released after a few days. 

Art

 Ennio Morlotti makes his first trip to Paris and visits the Expo, where Picasso presents Guernica. 

Art

 Renato Guttuso moves to Rome and stays in the house of the Marchesa Maria de Seta, owner of the Galleria Mediterranea in Palermo. It is there that he meets Maria Luisa Dotti, known as Mimise, who becomes his wife in 1950.

Art

 Ottone Rosai begins to frequent the large group of writers, including Eugenio Montale and Mario Luzi, who gather at the Giubbe Rosse café in Florence.

Art

 Afro, Corrado Cagli, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello and Alberto Ziveri take part in the VII Mostra del Sindacato Fascista Belle Arti del Lazio in Rome. 

Art

 Luigi Broggini takes part in the VIII Mostra del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista Belle Arti di Lombardia at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan.

Art

 Alberto Ziveri goes on a trip around Europa and experiences the painting of Rembrandt, Goya and the Flemish masters first hand.

Art

 Sandro Bini, Metamorfosi - 46 disegni di Renato Birolli, Campo Grafico, Milan, 1937.

Art

 Paul Fierens, De Pisis, Chroniques du jour, Paris, 1937.

1938

History

 Prohibition of marriage between Jews and “Arians” and introduction of anti-Semitic measures to eliminate Jews from the education system, art exhibitions, state institutes of culture and public offices. Birth of the magazine Difesa della razza. 

History

 Adolf Hitler visits Italy and is greeted with military parades in Rome, Naples and Florence.

History

 Munich Conference between Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier.

Art

 In Milan Ernesto Treccani founds the journal Vita Giovanile, subsequently renamed Corrente di Vita Giovanile and then Corrente (around which figures like Renato Birolli, Renato Guttuso and Aligi Sassu gather) until its closure by order of Mussolini in 1940. Vita Giovanile publishes the article ‘Pittura e pubblico’ by Arnaldo Badodi defending the intellectual and moral dignity of the artist and rebelling against the Fascist imposition of order.

Art

 Work by Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello, Ottone Rosai and Scipione is shown in the second Rome Quadrennial.

Art

 Renato Guttuso’s first solo show is held in Rome at the Galleria della Cometa, which is then closed down for showing the work of two Jewish artists, Corrado Cagli and Cecil Blunt, the husband of the Contessa Anna Letizia Pecci-Blunt.

Art

 Renato Birolli holds a show at the Galleria Arcobaleno in Venice.

Art

 The IX Mostra di Pittura del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista Belle Arti di Milano at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan prompts an article by Giuseppe Marchiori in the Corriere padano on young Milanese artists including Renato Birolli, Fiorenzo Tomea, Gabriele Mucchi, Aligi Sassu, Giacomo Manzù, Italo Valenti, Renato Guttuso, Giuseppe Migneco and Arnaldo Badodi. 

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Francesco De Rocchi, Mario Mafai and Alberto Ziveri take part in the XXI Venice Biennial.

Art

 Roberto Melli, Fausto Pirandello and Antonietta Raphaël take part in the Terza Mostra del Sindacato regionale fascista Belle Arti del Lazio.

Art

 Giuseppe Marchiori, ‘Filippo De Pisis’, Emporium, January 1938.

Art

 Nino Savarese, ‘Pittura di Renato Guttuso’, Corrente, anno I, no. 7, 30 April 1938.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, ‘La cosiddetta arte metafisica’, Emporium, XLIV, 11, November 1938

Art

 Giuseppe Marchiori, Scipione, Hoepli, Milan, 1938.

1939

History

 Galeazzo Ciano and Joachim von Ribbentrop sign the Pact of Steel military alliance between Italy and Germany in Berlin.

Art

 Creation of the Bergamo Prize (1939–42) by Giuseppe Bottai, Minister of Education, in opposition to the Cremona Prize (1939–41), founded by Roberto Farinacci.

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Alberto Ziveri, Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Francesco Menzio and Fausto Pirandello take part in the third Rome Quadrennial.

Art

 The first two exhibitions organized by the journal Corrente di Vita Giovanile take place in Milan at the Palazzo della Permanente and the Galleria P. Grande. The artists taking part include Renato Birolli, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai and Fausto Pirandello.

Art

 Antonietta Raphaël is forced by anti-Semitic discrimination to move with her daughters to the region of Liguria, where she can count on the support of Emilio Jesi and Alberto Della Ragione. Mario Mafai frequently visits them there and meets Giacomo Manzù, Renato Guttuso and Renato Birolli through relations with the two collectors and shows at the Galleria Genova. He also holds a show at the Galleria Arcobaleno in Venice with a catalogue edited by Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti. Called up as a reservist, Mafai is stationed in Macerata, where he remains until 1942 (with periodical trips to Rome and Genoa).

Art

 Ottone Rosai shows work at the Galleria Barbaroux in Milan.

Art

 A celebration of Sicilian painting at the Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele in Palermo with five shows including the IX Mostra Sindacale d’Arte, in which Renato Guttuso takes part.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis returns to Milan and remains there until 1943.

Art

 Luigi Broggini is awarded the Fumagalli Prize by the Accademia di Brera, where Italo Valenti begins to teach a course on the nude. 

Art

 A solo show of Umberto Lilloni at the Galleria Grande in Milan coincides with a monograph on the artist by Emilio Radius. Guido Piovene uses the term chiarismo in his review of the show. 

Art

 After a trip to Paris, Ennio Morlotti moves to Milan and studies under Aldo Carpi and Achille Funi at the Accademia di Brera. He soon joins the Corrente group.

Art

 Work by Filippo de Pisis, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello and Scipione is featured in the Italian pavilion at the New York World’s Fair.

Art

 Work by Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai and Scipione is shown in San Francisco at the Golden Gate International Exhibition of Contemporary Art.

Art

 Sandro Bini, ‘Arnaldo Badodi’, Corrente, anno II, no. 6, 31 March 1939.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, Poesie, Modernissima, Rome, 1939.

Art

 Giuseppe Raimondi, ‘Dodici dipinti regalati da Filippo De Pisis alla R. Galleria d’Arte Moderna’, Le Arti, II, fasc. II, December 1939 – January 1940.

Art

 Ottone Rosai, ‘Le mie esperienze’, Il Tempo, 2 November 1939

Art

 Renato Guttuso, ‘Appunti’, Il Selvaggio, anno VIII, no. 9-10, 30 November 1939.

1940

History

 Italy declares war on France and Great Britain. Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich to agree on the conditions of an armistice for France.

History

 Italian troops occupy Sollum and Sidiel-Barrani in Egypt.

History

 Tripartite pact between Germany, Italy and Japan to establish a “new order” in Europe and Central Asia directed against the Soviet Union.

Art

 Mario Mafai wins the Bergamo Prize with Renato Guttuso in third place.

Art

 Carlo Levi is forced to return to Italy after the German occupation of Paris.

Art

 Ottone Rosai, Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Umberto Lilloni and Francesco Menzio take part in an exhibition of contemporary Italian painters and sculptors at the Kunsthaus in Zurich.

Art

 The journal Corrente is closed down for its critical stance towards the Fascist regime. 

Art

 First issue of Primato, edited by Giuseppe Bottai and Giorgio Vecchietti. The contributors include Mario Mafai, Ottone Rosai, Renato Guttuso and Filippo de Pisis.

Art

 Luigi Broggini holds a solo show at the Galleria del Milione in Milan.

Art

 Renato Guttuso, Virgilio Guzzi, Luigi Montanarini, Orfeo Tamburi, Pericle Fazzini and Alberto Ziveri hold a group show at the Galleria di Roma.

Art

 Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai and Fausto Pirandello take part in the IX Mostra del Sindacato interprovinciale fascista Belle Arti del Lazio.

Art

 Mario Mafai shows work in Milan at the Galleria Barbaroux.

Art

 A show of work by Renato Birolli inaugurates the Bottega degli Artisti di Corrente in Via della Spiga 9, Milan, directed by Duilio Morosini. Alberto della Ragione, a naval engineer from Sorrento but Genoese by adoption, becomes the primary supporter of Corrente. 

Art

  Aldo Capasso, ‘La condizione dell’arte’, Quadrivio, anno VIII, no. 44, August 1940. 

Art

 Albino Galvano, ‘Francesco Menzio’, Le Arti, May 1940

Art

 Renato Guttuso, ‘Nota a Mafai’, Primato, anno I, no. 13, September 1940.

Art

 Telesio Interlandi, ‘La condizione dell’arte’, Quadrivio, 1940.

Art

 Enotrio Mastrolonardo, ‘Arnaldo Badodi’, Augustea, anno XV, no. 23-24, October 1940.

Art

 Alfonso Gatto, Luigi Broggini, Edizioni del Milione, Milan, 1940.

Art

 Renato Guttuso holds a solo show at the Galleria Genova with a presentation by Alberto Moravia. Ottone Rosai also shows work there

Art

 The journal Corrente is closed down for its critical stance towards the Fascist regime. 

1941

History

 Germany and Italy declare war on Yugoslavia. Joint German and Italian offensive in Greece.

Art

 Ottone Rosai serves on the jury of the Bergamo Prize and shows work in Turin at the Società Amici dell'Arte.

Art

  Posthumous exhibition Scipione. Cinque tricromie raccolte dal Centro di azione per le arti at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan with a critical study by Antonino Santangelo.

Art

 The Bottega di Corrente exhibits numerous works from Aligi Sassu’s Uomini rossi series and hosts a solo show of Giuseppe Migneco. 

Art

 Arnaldo Badodi shows work at the Galleria della Spiga in Milan. A larger solo show is held the same year at the Galleria Genova, where Mario Mafai and Aligi Sassu also exhibit work.

Art

 Arrest of Luigi Broggini for anti-fascist activities during a visit to his mother in Ligurno near Varese. A show of his ceramics is held at the Galleria Il Milione in Milan (Mostra di ceramiche dello scultore Luigi Broggini).

Art

 Italo Valenti holds his first shows at the Galleria Genova with Luigi Broggini and the Bottega di Corrente in Milan, presented by Luciano Anceschi.

Art

 Mario De Micheli, ‘Commento a Birolli’, Architrave, anno I, no. 8, 1941.

Art

 Renato Guttuso, ‘Una mostra di Pirandello’, Primato, II, no. 6, March 1941.

Art

 Enotrio Mastrolonardo, ‘Nota su Arnaldo Badodi’, Meridiano di Rome, anno VI, no. 4, January 1941.

Art

 Podestà, ‘Luigi Broggini e Italo Valenti’, Emporium, anno XLVII, no. 9, Istituto Italiano d’Arti Grafiche, Bergamo, September. 

Art

 Renato Birolli. Trenta tavole in nero, una a colori e cinque disegni, con scritti dell'autore e un testo critico di Sandro Bini, Edizioni di Corrente, Milan, 1941. 

Art

Art

1942

Art

 Exhibition of the Rino Valdameri Collection at the Galleria di Roma with works by Filippo de Pisis, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello, Ottone Rosai and Scipione. 

Art

 Renato Guttuso’s Crocifissione (Crucifixion) is placed second in the fourth and last edition of the Bergamo Prize, which is awarded to Francesco Menzio.

Art

 Mario Mafai is transferred from Macerata to the Celio barracks in Rome. An article by him entitled ‘La mia pittura’ appears in Tempo. He also publishes some letters received from Scipione in 1932 in Prospettive (no. 25-27).

Art

 Renato Birolli holds a solo show at the Galleria della Spiga in Milan.

Art

 Arnaldo Badodi is called up and sent to the Russian front, where he is taken prisoner and dies the following year in a POW camp near Moscow.

Art

 Antonietta Raphaël obtains a space at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome with the help of Mino Maccari but moves back to Genoa due to financial difficulties.

Art

 Luigi Broggini is awarded the Ministry of Education’s first prize for his artistic activity but is unable to receive it because he is still in prison.

Art

 Bruno Cassinari and Ennio Morlotti take refuge from Fascist roundups at Mondonico in Lombardy and embark on a period of joint work that continues until 1946. 

Art

 The collecter Alberto della Ragione come to the financial aid of the Bottega degli Artisti di Corrente, which is renamed the Galleria della Spiga e Corrente and holds shows of work by Scipione and Emilio Vedova.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis and Fausto Pirandello take part in the XXIII Venice Biennial.

Art

 Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello and Alberto Ziveri are among the artists taking part in the X Mostra del Sindacato Interprovinciale fascista Belle Arti del Lazio in Rome.

Art

 Ottone Rosai takes part in the first show at the Galleria del Cavallino in Venice and obtains the chair in painting at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. 

Art

 Mino Rosi, ‘Prefazione a Renato Guttuso’, Il Campano, no. 1-2, January-February, 1942.

Art

 'Badodi’, Sette Giorni, anno VIII, no. 21, May 1942.

Art

 Giulio Carlo Argan, ‘Pitture di De Pisis’, Primato, January 1942.

Art

 Vincenzo Costantini, ‘Corrente’, Emporium, anno XLVIII, no. 1, January 1942. 

Art

 Raffaello Franchi, Disegni di Ottone Rosai, Hoepli, Milan, 1942. 

Art

 Albino Galvano, Enrico Paulucci, Edizioni di Documento, Rome, 1942.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis, Poesie, Vallecchi, Florence, 1942.

1943

History

 American, British and Canadian allied forces land in Sicily

History

 Victor Emanuel II informs Mussolini of his destitution at the Villa Savoia. The Duce is arrested and the country is placed under the military government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio.

History

 Badoglio announces the armistice and abandons Rome together with the royal family.

History

 German parachutists free Mussolini from imprisonment on the Gran Sasso mountain. Birth of the Fascist Republic of Salò, recognized and protected by Germany. 

Art

 Show of work by Renato Guttuso at the Galleria dello Zodiaco in Rome in collaboration with the Galleria della Spiga. Work by Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello, Emilio Vedova and Scipione is also shown at the Zodiaco in the exhibition Undici pittori romani. The same year sees a show of Mafai and Manzù with a presentation by Alberto Moravia.

Art

Art

 Ottone Rosai shows work at the Galleria Cairola in Milan. He is attacked and insulted by a group of anti-fascists during the same year.

Art

 Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Mario Mafai, Francesco Menzio, Fausto Pirandello, Ottone Rosai, Emilio Vedova and Alberto Ziveri take part in the IV Rome Quadrennial.

Art

 Show of work by Mario Mafai and Scipione at the Galleria Il Ponte in Florence. 

Art

 Show of work by Bruno Cassinari, Ernesto Treccani and Ennio Morlotti at the Nuova Galleria della Spiga e Corrente in Milan.

Art

 Gio Ponti invites artists including Giorgio de Chirico, Achille Funi, Filippo de Pisis, Pompeo Borra, Aligi Sassu and Francesco De Rocchi to work on the decoration of a newly built villa at Cervignano d’Adda (Lodi). 

Art

 Renato Guttuso leaves Rome to play an active part in the Resistance for two years.

Art

 Filippo De Pisis moves to Venice after the bombing of Milan and remains there until 1948.

Art

 Italo Valenti refuses to continue teaching after the institution of the Fascist Republic of Salò and takes refuge at Porcia in the Veneto region.

Art

 Mario Mafai and Antonietta Raphaël leave Genoa with their daughters and return to Rome. 

Art

 Mafai (in the series Quaderni del Disegno Contemporaneo), Edizioni della Galleria della Spiga e Corrente, Milan 1943, with a preface by Antonino Santangelo.

1944

History

 The Allies enter Rome.

History

 Antonietta Raphaël returns to Genoa.

Art

 Mario Mafai leaves for Naples, where he is elected vice president of the organizing committee of the Libera Associazione delle Arti Figurative. The president of the association is Gino Severini and the members include Giuseppe Capogrossi, Renato Guttuso, Mirko, Toti Scialoja and Alberto Ziveri. 

Art

 Work by Mario Mafai, Fausto Pirandello, Ottone Rosai and Scipione is shown in 25 Artisti del Secolo at the Galleria del Secolo in Rome.

Art

 Work by Filippo de Pisis, Mario Mafai, Renato Guttuso, Fausto Pirandello, Ottone Rosai and Scipione is shown in the Esposizione d'Arte Contemporaneo. Exhibition of Contemporary Italian Art at the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna in Rome.

Art

 Renato Guttuso starts work on his anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi painting Gott mit uns (1944–45).

Art

 A reading of Carlo Levi’s text Paura della pittura (written in July 1942) is broadcast by Radio Firenze.

Art

 Ottone Rosai explains his activities during the Fascist regime and gradual detachment to the president of the national liberation committee. He is suspended from his teaching post at the academy.

Art

 Luigi Broggini takes part in the Esposizione d’arte contemporanea at the Galleria Nazionale d’arte moderna.

Art

 Giuseppe Montanari, ‘Le sculture di Broggini, Cronaca Prealpina, 5 November 1944.

Art

 Alfonso Gatto, Luigi Broggini, II ed., Edizioni del Milione, Milan, 1944. 

Art

 Giuseppe Marchiori, Disegni di Scipione, Istituto Italiano d’Arti Grafiche, Bergamo, 1944.

Art

 Alessandro Parronchi, Nomi della pittura italiana contemporanea, Edizioni Arnaud, Florence, 1944.

1945

History

 Mussolini is caught by partisans after fleeing to Como and executed in Piazzale Loreto, Milan.

Literature

 Publication of the book Cristo si è fermato a Eboli, written by Carlo Levi during his wartime period of clandestine activities in Florence. 

Art

 Work by Renato Birolli, Filippo de Pisis, Renato Guttuso, Roberto Melli, Fausto Pirandello and Ottone Rosai is shown in the exhibition Artisti Moderni alla Galleria del Secolo in Rome. 

Art

 Bruno Cassinari and Ennio Morlotti design a poster for the International Workers’ Day.

Art

 Emilio Vedova shows work at the Galleria Venezia and later at the Galleria del Pioppo in Mantua. 

Art

Roberto Melli starts teaching at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome.

Art

 Umbro Apollonio presents work by Scipione at the Galleria del Cavallino in Venice.

Art

 Mario Mafai holds shows at the Galleria dell’Arco in Venice as well as the Secolo and the Zodiaco in Rome.

Art

 Mario Mafai, ‘Possibilità per un’arte nuova’, Rinascita, no. 3, March 1945.

Art

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